Chronicle of the Years 2000-2009

America Fissuring
Culture War and Socio-Political Fragmentation, 2000-2009


The Year 2000

January 1, 2000: All over the world, people rang in a new year, a new decade, a new century, and a new millennium.

Or did they? Due to the limitations of Roman mathematics, there was no year "zero," and thus one could make the case that the new century and millennium would not begin until 2001. But mathematical technicalities aside, the world embraced the Year 2000 as the dawn of a new century and a new 1000 year block of time. In the cultural sense of things, as such, it was a new century.

Above: The cover of a special issue of Time, commemorating the dawn of the 21st century

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Michigan Quarterback Tom Brady Leads Michigan to Victory Against Alabama

January 2, 2000:

Above: University of Michigan quarterback Tom Brady throwing the football against Alabama in the Orange Bowl, a game won by Michigan in overtime, January 2, 2000

The 2000 U.S. Census

April 1, 2000: The Census Bureau conducted the 2000 U.S. Census

Per the Census, the population of the United States of America was 281,421,906 in 2000, a population increase of 13.1% since 1990.

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The Dawn of the Age of Vladimir Putin in Russia

May 7, 2000: Vladimir Putin became President of Russia. His initial tenure as president lasted until May 7, 2008, upon which he became Prime Minister from May 2008 until May 2012. On May 7, 2012, Putin again became President of Russia.

Above: President of Russia Vladimir Putin

Biography of Vladimir Putin

Hafez al-Assad of Syria, 1930-2000

June 10, 2000: Hafez al-Assad, who ruled Syria for nearly 30 years, died. His son, Bashar al-Assad, soon succeeded him.

Above: Hafez al-Assad, Ba'athist ruler of Syria from 1970 to 2000; Hafez al-Assad and his family, undated photo with son Bashar al-Assad (successor to Hafez al-Assad) in the back row, second from the left

Bashar al-Assad Became President of Syria, Extending the Ba'athist Rule of the Assad Family

July 17, 2000:

Above: Bashar al-Assad, President of Syria; Bashar al-Assad on the day of his inauguration, July 17, 2000

CNN: Timeline regarding Bashar al-Assad of Syria

The FDA Approves RU-486, the Abortion Pill

September 28, 2000:

The Presidential Election of 2000

November 7, 2000: Governor George W. Bush of Texas won the Presidential Election of 2000.

Above: Republican George W. Bush at left, and Democrat Al Gore at right

Above: The 2000 presidential electoral map


The Premiere of Traffic

January 5, 2001:

Above: Movie Poster for Traffic

IMDb: Traffic, Release Dates

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (The Dow) at the End of the Bill Clinton Presidency: 10,587

January 19, 2001: On the last day of trading of Bill Clinton's presidency, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 10,587.


Above: President Bill Clinton; Drawing of the New York Stock Exchange Building

Above: Google screen image showing the S&P 500 having closed at 1,336 on January 19, 2001, the last full trading day of Bill Clinton's Presidency

The Presidency of George W. Bush

January 20, 2001: George W. Bush became President of the United States

George W. Bush (Republican), 43rd American President.
Years in Office: 2001-2009
November 2000: In a legally disputed election versus Vice President Al Gore, Republican Governor George W. Bush of Texas won the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election. Bush was re-elected in 2004. He served as president from January 20, 2001 to January 20, 2009.

Expedition 2: The Continued Human Presence on the International Space Station

March-August 2001: American Space Shuttle Astronaut, James Voss, Alabama native and an Auburn University graduate, was a crew member in a joint American-Russian International Space Station expedition.

Above: Crew of Expedition 2 crew; Portrait of Astronaut James Voss; Voss in orbit wearing an Auburn University T-Shirt

Above: Patch for the International Space Station mission; James Voss in orbit wearing an Auburn T-Shirt

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Republican Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont Announces His Intention to Leave the GOP

May 24, 2001:

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Bush Administration Warned that Al Qaeda Planning Big Attack on the United States

July 10, 2001

Above: Osama Bin Laden, leader of Al Qaeda

Salon: The July 10, 2001 Warning the Bush Administration Ignored

Politico: The July 10, 2001 Warning Given to the Bush Administration

"That morning of July 10, the head of the agency’s Al Qaeda unit, Richard Blee, burst into Black’s office. 'And he says, ‘Chief, this is it. Roof's fallen in,' recounts Black. 'The information that we had compiled was absolutely compelling. It was multiple-sourced. And it was sort of the last straw.' Black and his deputy rushed to the director’s office to brief Tenet. All agreed an urgent meeting at the White House was needed. Tenet picked up the white phone to Bush’s National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice. 'I said, ‘Condi, I have to come see you,’ Tenet remembers. 'It was one of the rare times in my seven years as director where I said, ‘I have to come see you. We're comin' right now. We have to get there.’

Tenet vividly recalls the White House meeting with Rice and her team. (George W. Bush was on a trip to Boston.) “Rich [Blee] started by saying, ‘There will be significant terrorist attacks against the United States in the coming weeks or months. The attacks will be spectacular. They may be multiple. Al Qaeda's intention is the destruction of the United States.’ [Condi said:] ‘What do you think we need to do?’ Black responded by slamming his fist on the table, and saying, ‘We need to go on a wartime footing now!’

'What happened?' I ask Cofer Black. 'Yeah. What did happen?' he replies. 'To me it remains incomprehensible still. I mean, how is it that you could warn senior people so many times and nothing actually happened? It’s kind of like The Twilight Zone.'"

---Chris Whipple,, November 12, 2015

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President George W. Bush Receives Warning that Osama Bin Laden was Determined to Attack the United States

August 6, 2001:

Above: Osama Bin Laden, leader of Al Qaeda

Kurt Eichenwald of the New York Times: "Deafness Before the Storm"

CNN's Peter Bergen: Bush's 9/11 Failure

September 11th

September 11, 2001: Radical Islamic Al-Qaeda terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center Towers in New York City and damaged the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.

September 11, 2001: Al Qaeda Jihadist terrorists attack the United States in New York City and Washington, D.C.
Osama Bin Laden was the mastermind behind the attacks.

The Atlantic's Peter Beinart: George W. Bush and the Failure to Stop the 9/11 Attacks

The War on Terror

The Afghanistan War, October 2001-Present.

The War on Terror

Osama Bin Laden, 1957-2011.

After September 11, 2001, Osama Bin Laden, leader of Al Qaeda, evaded capture by the United States for the rest of George W. Bush's presidency and into the presidency of Barack Obama.

CIA Agent Mike Spann Killed in Afghanistan

November 25, 2001:

Above: CIA Agent Mike Spann, killed in Afghanistan by enemy detainees, November 25, 2001


American Education Policy

January 2002: President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act into law


The Wire debuted on HBO

June 2, 2002:

Above: Cast members from The Wire; Title screen

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The March to War: Vice President Dick Cheney Declares that Iraq Possesses Weapons of Mass Destruction

August 26, 2002:

Above: Vice President Dick Cheney speaking before the VFW

Text of Dick Cheney's August 26, 2002 Speech to the VFW

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The March to War: George W. Bush Spoke Before the United Nations General Assembly Concerning Iraq

September 12, 2002:

The Guardian: Transcript of Bush's Speech to the UN General Assembly, September 12, 2002

The 2002 Midterm Elections: Republicans Win Complete Control of Congress

November 2002: In the Congressional Elections, the GOP captured a majority in both the Senate and House, and in January 2003, the Republican Party took full control of Congress.

In the wake of the 2002 elections, Republican Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi was scheduled to become the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Republican Representative Dennis Hastert was scheduled to maintain the office of Speaker of the House.

But for Trent Lott the triumph proved to be short-lived.

Above: Time coverage of the 2002 Midterms

In Praise of Strom Thurmond, and the Fall of Senator Trent Lott

December 5, 2002: At an event celebrating Republican Senator Strom Thurmond's 100th birthday, Republican Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi, the anticipated-to-be Majority Leader in the U.S. Senate, heaped great praise on the long-serving conservative senator from South Carolina. But one comment in particular destroyed Trent Lott's political career.

During his tribute to Senator Thurmond (the former segregationist and 1948 presidential candidate of the segregationist States' Rights Democratic Party), Trent Lott made the following comments:

"I want to say this about my state: When Strom Thurmond ran for president we voted for him. We're proud of it. And if the rest of the country had of followed our lead we wouldn't have had all these problems over all these years, either."--Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi, December 5, 2002

Above Left: President George W. Bush (at left) and Senator Trent Lott (middle) celebrate the 100th birthday of Senator Strom Thurmond (seated). Above Right: Trent Lott on a subsequent cover of Time magazine in December 2002.

Trent Lott's comments were not widely covered at first. But in the days following Lott's December 5th comments, political commentators in the blogosphere (the internet) began to discuss and debate the gravity of Lott's remarks.

In short, the political tides shifted away from Lott as his comments were widely seen as racist and sympathetic to Strom Thurmond's segregationist past.

Within weeks, Lott announced that, though he would remain in the U.S. Senate, he would not serve as the Senate Majority Leader.


The Loss of Space Shuttle Columbia

February 1, 2003:

Above: Time cover featuring the Columbia disaster; The crew of Space Shuttle Columbia

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The March to War: Secretary of State Colin Powell's Speech to the UN

February 5, 2003:


The American Invasion of Iraq

March 20, 2003: The United States of America began attacking Iraq via the air in preparation of the ground invasion.

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In March 2003, the United States and a coalition of allies invaded and occupied Iraq, ostensibly in response to Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein's possession of weapons of mass destruction, prior military aggression against its neighbors, and prior support of terrorism.

The invasion easily toppled Saddam Hussein and his regime. In 2006, the new Iraqi government tried and executed the former dictator. In the wake of the U.S. invasion, however, an anti-American insurgency emerged, and until 2007, Iraq remained unstable, and bordered on a Shiite-Sunni civil war.

From 2007 to 2011, in turn, Iraq stabilized to a degree. Toward the end of 2011, the U.S. withdrew the last of its combat forces. As of 2012, the Iraqi government that replaced Saddam Hussein's continues to govern Iraq.

Iraq: Ten Years after the U.S. Invasion

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"Mission Accomplished"

May 1, 2003:


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Paul Bremer Takes Over the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq

May 12, 2003:

Above: Paul Bremer, the new head of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq

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Paul Bremer Issues CPA Order Number 1

May 16, 2003:

Above: Paul Bremer, who ordered the De-Baathification of Iraqi government

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Paul Bremer Issues CPA Order Number 2

May 23, 2003

Above: Paul Bremer, CPA head who ordered the dismantling of the Iraq Military

The Capture of Rightwing Terrorist Eric Rudolph

May 31, 2003: Authorities arrested Eric Rudolph, the rightwing domestic terrorist who bombed Centennial Park in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1996 Summer Olympics. He was arrested in Murphy, North Carolina.

Rudolph later struck a plea deal with the U.S. government, a deal in which he confessed to a series of bombings. In turn Rudolph accepted a life sentence, thus avoiding the death penalty. As of 2013, he was an inmate in a Colorado federal prison.

Above: Eric Rudolph's May 31, 2003 booking photo

Eric Rudolph confessed to the following bombings:

Centennial Park, 1996 Summer Olympics, in Atlanta, Georgia on July 27, 1996
Abortion Clinic in Sandy Springs, Georgia on January 16, 1997
Lesbian Bar in Atlanta, Georgia on February 21, 1997
Abortion Clinic in Birmingham, Alabama on January 29, 1998

Eric Rudolph's Confession

"Abortion is murder. And when the regime in Washington legalized, sanctioned and legitimized this practice, they forfeited their legitimacy and moral authority to govern. At various times in history men and women of good conscience have had to decide when the lawfully constituted authorities have overstepped their moral bounds and forfeited their right to rule. This took place in July of 1776 when our Forefathers decided that the British Crown had violated the essential rights of Englishmen, and therefore lost its authority to govern. And, in January of 1973 the government in Washington decided to descend into barbarism by sanctioning the ancient practice of infanticide by that act consigned 50 million unborn children to their graves. There is no more legitimate reason to my knowledge, for renouncing allegiance to and if necessary using force to drag this monstrosity of a government down to the dust where it belongs."---Eric Rudolph, excerpt from his 2005 Confession

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The Right to Privacy Extended

June 26, 2003: In Lawrence v. Texas the United States Supreme Court ruled, in a 6 to 3 decision, that a right of privacy exists for consenting adults in sexual matters.

In Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a broader range of privacy than the court did in its landmark 1965 decision, Griswold v. Connecticut. In short, the parameters of sexual freedom were broadened by both Griswold andLawrence. Anthony Kennedy (a Ronald Reagan appointee) wrote the majority opinion in Lawrence.

Above: Anthony Kennedy

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Bush Challenges the Iraqi Insurgency: "Bring 'Em On"

July 2, 2003:


Bush Trash Talking: "Bring 'Em On" YouTube: Bush Says "Bring 'Em On" USA Today: "Bring 'Em On"

CNN: White House Defends Bush's "Bring 'Em On" Comments CBS News: Dubya and His "Bring 'Em On" Comments

A Growing Insurgency in Iraq: The Bombing of the Jordanian Embassy

August 7, 2003:

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Race and the Culture War: The Case of Rush Limbaugh and NFL Quarterback Donovan McNabb

September 28, 2003: Conservative radio talk show host Rush Limbaugh, while doing commentary on an ESPN Sunday NFL preview show, claimed that Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb had been overrated by the media because they desired to see a Black quarterback succeed.

Limbaugh's comments caused an immediate backlash, and days later he resigned from his ESPN duties. Limbaugh's critics were quick to point out that Limbaugh had a history of stoking racial resentment against African-Americans.

Donovan McNabb went on to lead the Philadelphia Eagles through the rest of the 2003 NFL Season and into the playoffs, and then led his team to a berth in the NFC Championship Game.

In 2004, Donovan McNabb led the Philadelphia Eagles to an NFC Championship, and a berth in Super Bowl XXXIX.

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Above: Rush Limbaugh (undated photo), and Donovan McNabb (undated photo)

Rush Limbaugh Exposed as a Drug Addict

October 3-10, 2003: The National Enquirer, on October 3rd, published accusations that conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh was an illegal drug user and the target of a legal probe. On the 10th of October, Limbaugh admitted to being addicted to pain pills, and stated that he would be leaving his show for a time in order to go to rehab.

The admission of drug addiction came in the wake of the racially-charged comments that Limbaugh made on ESPN about Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb.

Years prior, Limbaugh made statements declaring that people who used illegal drugs should be prosecuted. Once exposed as a drug addict, Limbaugh's critics quickly denounced him as a hypocrite.

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Above: The National Enquirer's cover story about Limbaugh; Limbaugh smoking a cigar

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Arnold Schwarzenegger Elected Governor of California

October 7, 2003

Steve Bartman and a Foul Ball in Chicago

October 14, 2003: At Chicago's Wrigley Field, in Major League Baseball's Game 6 of the 2003 American League Championship Series, the Chicago Cubs led 3 games to 2 in the best-of-seven series against the Florida Marlins. In the top of the 8th inning with one out, the Cubs led the Marlins 3 to 0. The losing-prone Cubs seemed poised to go to win a berth in the 2003 World Series. They were five outs away from winning the American League championship.

Then a Marlins batter hit a foul ball down the left field line, a ball that was descending into the front row of the stands. The Cubs left fielder made a play for the ball, seemingly with a decent chance to catch it, thus making the second out of the 8th inning.

But at the last moment a 26 year old Chicago Cubs fan named Steve Bartman reached out in an effort to catch the foul ball, and in doing so, deflected the ball away from the Chicago left fielder.

In the wake of the missed foul ball, the Florida Marlins rallied to score 8 runs in the 8th inning. For the Chicago Cubs, it was one of the most infamous collapses in Major League Baseball history.

During the collapse, thanks to numerous TV replays and the widespread use of cell phones, Cubs fans inside and outside of Wrigley Field began to identify Steve Bartman as the culprit who had sparked the defensive collapse of the Cubs. Derogatory chants broke out among the Cubs fans, beer was hurled in Bartman's direction, and ultimately, Wrigley Field security personnel escorted Bartman out of the stadium, and into hiding.

The Cubs ended up losing Game 6, and went on to lose Game 7. Instead of the Cubs, it was the Florida Marlins who went on to represent the American League in the World Series.

Above: Steve Bartman's deflection of an 8th inning foul ball; Bartman in the aftermath of the foul ball

Above: A screen shot from the ESPN documentary about Steve Bartman

What became of Steve Bartman? For the most part, Bartman did as much as he could to keep himself out of the public limelight. A few days after the Game 6 foul ball, Bartman issued a statement apologizing for his role in the incident. In the years since--at least as of 2013--Bartman has not conducted interviews, and has not made himself available to the public.

In 2011, ESPN produced a documentary entitled Catching Hell, a film comparing the plights of Boston Red Sox first baseman Bill Buckner (who famously missed a ground ball in the last inning of Game 6 in the 1986 World Series) with that of Steve Bartman.


China Sends Human Beings into Space Aboard Shenzhou 5

October 15, 2003: China's Shenzhou 5 manned space expedition was successfully launched into orbit, and was subsequently safely returned to the earth (capsule pictured below right).

While in space, Shenzhou 5 made 14 orbits around the earth. In doing so, China became the third nation-state to establish an independent manned space program, the other two being the Soviet Union and the United States. Yang Liwei (pictured below left) was sole astronaut aboard Shenzhou 5, thus becoming China's first astronaut from within the Chinese Space Program.

In October 2005, China sent two more men into space, this time aboard Shenzhou 6. During the 2005 space flight, Shenzhou 6 made 75 orbits, remaining in space nearly 5 days.

Above: Shenzhou 5 Astronaut Yang Liwei, and the Shenzhou 5 capsule after landing

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Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore Removed from Office

November 13, 2003:

CNN: Roy Moore Removed from Office

Saddam Hussein Captured by U.S. Forces

December 13, 2003:

Above: Time cover featuring the capture of Saddam Hussein


Premiere of The Apprentice on NBC, a Reality Series Starring Donald Trump

January 8, 2004

Above: Logo for NBC's The Apprentice

The Birth of Facebook and the Explosion of Online Social Media

February 4, 2004: Facebook (originally ""), a social media website, was launched by Mark Zuckerberg (co-creator), a student at Harvard University. By 2012, Facebook had over 1 billion members.

The impact of Facebook was immense. In 2010, Time named Zuckerberg it's Person of the Year.

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Above: Facebook co-creator Mark Zuckerberg; Facebook logo; In 2010, Zuckerberg won Time's Person of the Year

Religious Devotion or Culture War Moment? The Debut of Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ

February 25, 2004: The film The Passion of the Christ was released.

Above: Movie poster for The Passion of the Christ

Madrid, Spain Hit by Jihadist Terrorist Attack

March 11, 2004:

The Death of Pat Tillman

April 22, 2004:

Above: Former NFL football player Pat Tillman, killed in action in Afghanistan; Sports Illustrated cover memorializing Pat Tillman

Dave Zirin: Ten Years Later, Tillman's Death Still Not Fully Explained

The Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal

April-May 2004: Disclosure of the Abu Ghraib Prison Abuse Scandal

Above: The iconic image of a captive in U.S. custody; Time coverage of the Abu Ghraib scandal

The New Yorker's Seymour Hirsch: Torture at Abu Ghraib Abu Ghraib, Ten Years Later

The Beheading of American Nick Berg by Al Qaeda in Iraq

May 7, 2004:

Khobar Towers Massacre in Saudi Arabia

May 29-30, 2004:

Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004

June 5, 2004: After years of suffering with Alzheimer's Disease, former President Ronald W. Reagan died.

Above: Ronald W. Reagan, 1911-2004

Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004

The United States Returns Sovereignty to Iraq

June 28, 2004

The Rise of Barack H. Obama

July 27, 2004: At the Democratic Convention in Boston, Massachusetts, a candidate for the U.S. Senate, Barack Hussein Obama of Illinois, delivered the convention's keynote address and became an almost instant star in the Democratic Party.

In the summer of 2004, Barack Obama was a member of the State Senate in the Illinois State Legislature representing a district in Chicago. Less than five years later, Obama had become the President of the United States.

Above: Senatorial candidate Barack H. Obama delivers the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention.

On the night that Barack Obama gave the keynote speech at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, he was a State Senator in the Illinois legislature. But he was also the Democratic nominee for a U.S. Senate seat, a contest he would win by a wide margin in November 2004.

The positive reaction to the 2004 keynote speech, moreover, elevated Obama's status within the Democratic Party. After winning the U.S. Senate seat, he emerged as a potential presidential candidate in 2008.

Green Day's American Idiot

September 21, 2004: Green Day rock album American Idiot was released.

Above: Album cover for Green Day's American Idiot

"Say, hey!

Hear the sound of the falling rain
Coming down like an Armageddon flame
The shame, the ones who died without a name

Hear the dogs howling out of key
To a hymn called 'Faith and Misery'
And bleed, the company who lost the war today

I beg to dream and differ from the hollow lies
This is the dawning of the rest of our lives
On Holiday

Hear the drum pounding out of time
Another protester has crossed the line
To find the money's on the other side"

---Holiday, Green Day, American Idiot Album

The Boston Red Sox Win the 2004 World Series

October 27, 2004:

Above: 2004 World Series Program, Boston Red Sox vs. St. Louis Cardinals; Time cover commemorating the Red Sox World Series Championship

2004 World Series: Boston Red Sox vs. St. Louis Cardinals

The Presidential Election of 2004

November 2, 2004: President George W. Bush won the Presidential Election of 2004.

Above: Republican George W. Bush at left, and Democrat John F. Kerry at right

Above: The 2004 presidential electoral map; Time cover reporting on Bush's re-election

The Bill Clinton Presidential Library Dedicated

November 18, 2004: The Bill Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock, Arkansas was dedicated.

Above: The Bill Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock, Arkansas

Massive Tsunami in the Indian Ocean

December 26, 2004:


U.S. Senator Barack H. Obama of Illinois

January 4, 2005: Newly-elected Barack H. Obama of Illinois took the Oath of Office in joining the United States Senate.

Above: Barack H. Obama of Illinois with family on the day he took the Oath of Office in the U.S. Senate

The Orange Revolution: Viktor Yushchenko Becomes President of Ukraine

January 23, 2005:

Above: Viktor Yushchenko

The New Yorker: Article regarding Ukraine

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Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice

January 26, 2005: Condoleezza Rice, a native of Birmingham, Alabama, became Secretary of State under Presdent George W. Bush.

Rice served as Secretary of State until the end of Bush's term in January 2009.

Above: Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice

The Launch of YouTube

February 14, 2005:

Above: The YouTube Logo; The 3 Founders of YouTube: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim

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Culture War: The Death of Terri Schiavo

March 31, 2005:

Above: AP copy of undated photo of Terri Schiavo; AP photo of Governor of Florida Jeb Bush in June 2005

The Death of Pope John Paul II

April 2, 2005: Pope John Paul II died. He served as Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church for over a quarter-century (1978-2005).

Above: Time cover commemorating the death of Pope John Paul II; A few days after his death President George W. Bush and former Presidents Bill Clinton and George H.W. Bush attended the funeral of John Paul II.

Pope John Paul II is considered by many to be one of the greatest popes in the history of the Church, particularly among Catholic traditionalists. Some--both Catholic believers and Non-Catholics--also credit John Paul II (a native of Poland) with playing a key role in weakening the Soviet hold on her satellite states in Eastern Europe, communist Warsaw Pact nations that began breaking from the Soviet yoke in 1989.

John Paul II, however, does have his critics. Some have faulted him for not responding adequately to evidence of sexual abuse cases perpetrated by members of the Catholic clergy against children, namely those done by priests. Others faulted John Paul II for remaining too theologically conservative on matters of birth control and priestly celibacy.

But among traditional Catholics, John Paul II quickly became referred to as John Paul the Great in the wake of his death. It seems likely that he will eventually be designated by the Church as a saint.

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Pope Benedict XVI

April 19, 2005: Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope. His chose the regnal name Benedict XVI.

Above: Pope Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005; Time cover in the wake of the election of Pope Benedict XVI

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Dick Cheney Claims the Iraqi Insurgency in its "Last Throes"

May 30, 2005:

London Hit by Jihadist Terrorists

July 7, 2005:

It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia

August 4, 2005: It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia debuted on FX, a cable channel.

Above: The main characters of It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, from left to right: Dee, Dennis, Frank (in front), Charlie, and Mack

Hurricane Katrina

August-September 2005: Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans, Louisiana



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Rapper Kanye West Declares that President George W. Bush Does Not Care About Black People

September 2, 2005:

Above: Actor Mike Myers (left) and rapper Kanye West (right) appearing in a broadcast of a charity event for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, a segment of the show when Kanye West went off-script and declared that President George W. Bush lacked concern for Black people

Shenzhou 6: China's Second Manned Space Mission

October 12-16, 2005:

Above: Launch of Shenzhou 6 Shenzhou 6 Shenzhou 6 Shenzhou 6 Shenzhou 6

Culture War: The Premiere of The Colbert Report on Comedy Central

October 17, 2005:


The 2005 World Series: The Chicago White Sox Defeated the Houston Astros in Game 4 to Sweep the Series

October 26, 2005:

Above: The program for the 2005 World Series, a series in the Chicago White Sox defeated the Houston Astros in four straight games

Culture War: H.R. 4437 and a Latino Political Awakening

December 16, 2005: The Republican-controlled U.S. House of Representatives passed H.R. 4437, the Border Protection Anti-Terrorism and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 1905, a very conservative approach to issues pertaining to immigration, particularly immigration from Mexico and the rest of Latin America.

In particular, H.R. 4437 would have made it a felony for someone to be in the United States illegally.

H.R. 4437 never passed the U.S. Senate and never became the law of the land. But the bill, sponsored by Republican Congressman Jim Sensenbrenner of Wisconsin, greatly alarmed many Latinos in the United States. Many Latinos interpretedH.R. 4437 as evidence of hostility towards and a backlash against Latinos, a rapidly increasing segment of the United States population.

Above: Conservative Republican Congressman Jim Sensenbrenner, the primary sponsor of H.R. 4437

In a sense, H.R. 4437 became a spark that ignited protests against anti-immigration sentiment. In 2006, Latino concerns spilled into the streets of several American cities in massive protests.

Above: A Spanish language billboard voicing opposition to H.R. 4437

H.R. 4437


2006 Winter Olympics: Turin, Italy

February 10, 2006: In Turin, Italy, the opening ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games was held.

Above: Photos of the Olympic Rings at the opening ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin (Torino), Italy

Above: Logo of the 2006 Olympic Games in Turin, Italy

Coverage of the Opening Ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics

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A Bizarre Story Breaks in the News Media: During a Hunting Trip in Texas, Vice President Dick Cheney Shot a Man in the Face

February 12, 2006:

Above: Time coverage of Dick Cheney's role in the Bush Administration; Dick Cheney, undated photo

Above: Cheney and Bush on the cover of The New Yorker

CNN: Dick Cheney Shoots a Fellow Hunter in the Face New York Times: Dick Cheney Shoots Fellow Hunter

"Vice President Dick Cheney accidentally shot a prominent Austin lawyer while the two men were on a quail hunting expedition in South Texas on Saturday, firing shotgun pellets at the man while trying to aim for a bird, his spokeswoman confirmed today.

Mr. Cheney, a practiced hunter, sprayed the lawyer, Harry Whittington, with shotgun pellets on an outing on the Armstrong ranch in South Texas. Mr. Whittington, 78, was flown by helicopter to Corpus Christi Memorial Hospital, where he was listed in stable condition today, according to Michele Trevino, a hospital spokeswoman.

White House officials did not release details of the incident. But local news accounts in Texas suggested that Mr. Cheney fired his shotgun without realizing that Mr. Whittington had approached him from behind, spraying his fellow hunter on his right side, on his cheek, neck and chest."

---New York Times, February 12, 2006

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The Disintegration of Iraq: The Bombing of the al-Askari Shrine, a Sacred Shiite Shrine in Samarra, Iraq

February 22, 2006:

Above: The damaged golden dome of the al-Askari Shrine in Samarra, Iraq; Time coverage of sectarian conflict in Iraq

Above: Map of Iraq featuring Samarra; Before and After photos of the Al-Askari Golden Dome Shrine, Samarra, Iraq

Washington Post: Bombing of the al-Askari Shrine in Samarra, Iraq

New York Times: Bombing of the al-Askari Shrine in Samarra, Iraq BBC: The Bombing of the al-Askari Shrine in Samarra, Iraq

The Anti-H.R. 4437 Protests of 2006 and the Latino Political Awakening

March 10, 2006: Thousands Latino and Pro-Immigrant protesters took to the streets of Chicago in protest over H.R. 4437, the Republican-sponsored bill that would make undocumented immigrants to be considered felons. Estimates varied as to the size of the Chicago protest. One estimate pegged it at around 100,000 people, others estimated it upwards to 500,000.

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Above: A scene from the Anti-H.R. 4437 Protest in Chicago, Illinois held on March 10, 2006.

V For Vendetta...A Parable of the Age of Bush?

March 17, 2006: Its release having been delayed a few months, the politically-charged film V For Vendetta was released in American movie theaters.

Above: Theatrical release poster for V For Vendetta; "V," the film's protagonist

The Anti-H.R. 4437 Protests of 2006 and the Latino Political Awakening

March 25, 2006: In Los Angeles, California, thousands poured into the streets to protest against H.R. 4437, the Republican-sponsored bill that would have made it a felony to be in the United States illegally.

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Above: Thousands in Los Angeles, California demonstrate against H.R. 4437.

The Anti-H.R. 4437 Protests of 2006 and the Latino Political Awakening

April 9, 2006: As in Chicago and Los Angeles, a massive demonstration against H.R. 4437 was held in Dallas, Texas. And like in Chicago and Los Angeles, the Dallas demonstration drew thousands of marchers and protesters.

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Above: Time coverage of the 2006 immigration controversies; Anti-H.R. 4437 protestors in Dallas, Texas

Protests in Dallas, Texas

Stephen Colbert Hosted the White House Correspondents Dinner

April 29, 2006:

The Anti-H.R. 4437 Protests of 2006 and the Latino Political Awakening

May 1, 2006: Rallying around such themes as "The Great American Boycott," or "A Day Without Immigrants," or "A Day Without an Immigrant," thousands marched and protested in cities across the United States in continuance of the protests against the Republican-sponsored bill, H.R. 4437, a bill that would declare an undocumented immigrant to be a felon.

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Above: An Explanation of the Great American Boycott of May 1, 2006

"You know, I am proud of the fact that a national movement began in Chicago, because Chicago has always been ahead of the curve. And what started out as march borne of fear, fear of a House bill that would criminalize and create felons out of hardworking families who are simply trying to raise their children as best they can, has now become a movement of hope."
---Senator Barack H. Obama, Democrat of Illinois
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Above: Restaurants that closed for May 1, 2006 in solidarity the opponents of H.R. 4437

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Above: Protestors in Chicago; Demonstrator in New York City

Nouri al-Maliki Became Prime Minister of Iraq

May 20, 2006:

Above: Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki

BBC: Profile of Nouri al-Maliki

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2006 Alabama Republican Primary: Governor Bob Riley Defeated Roy Moore

June 6, 2006:

U.S. Forces Kill Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the Leader of Al Qaeda in iraq, the Forerunner of ISIS

June 7, 2006

Above: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, 1966-2006

The Resignation of Representative Tom DeLay of Texas

June 9, 2006: Under indictment and embroiled in financial scandal, House Representative Tom Delay of Texas resigned his seat in the House of Representatives.

Tom DeLay, a prominent Religious Right and economic conservative, had been the House Majority Leader from January 3, 2003 to September 28, 2005. Prior to becoming House Majority Leader, Tom DeLay had been House Whip from January 1995 until becoming House Majority Leader in 2003.

In short, Tom DeLay had been a prominent figure in the House Leadership since the Republican Party had taken control of the House of Representatives in January 1995 in the wake of the Republican triumph in the 1994 Congressional elections.

DeLay was later convicted of financially-related crimes.

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Above: Representative Tom DeLay's October 2005 Mugshot and Arrest Warrant

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Hamdan v. Rumsfeld:

June 29, 2006:

Above: Salim Ahmed Hamdan, undated photo; U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, June 29, 2006

"In Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006), the Supreme Court ruled that the Bush administration's use of military commissions to try terrorist suspects violated the U.S. Code of Military Justice and Geneva Conventions, and were not specifically authorized by any act of Congress. The case began with the capture of Salim Ahmed Hamdan, a Yemenese citizen who had been the personal driver of Osama bin Laden, a wanted terrorist, on a farming project developed by bin Laden. The project, located in Afghanistan, was designed to increase regional support for bin Laden and his radical views. After the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, American forces invaded Afghanistan to route out bin Laden, his terrorist group Al Qaeda, and allied Taliban forces. During the American invasion, Afghani bounty hunters captured Hamdan and sold him to the U.S. military. In 2002, the U.S. military moved Hamdan to its military detainee camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and in 2004 it charged him with conspiracy to commit terrorism and made arrangements to try him before a military commission specially designed for terrorist suspects like him."

Italy Defeats France to Win the 2006 FIFA World Cup

July 9, 2006: In a game that was ultimately decided by penalty kicks after overtime failed to render a winner, Italy defeated France to take the 2006 World Cup championship.

Above: Logo of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, a tournament held in Germany; Zinedine Zidane head-butts an Italian player, an action that cost France its best player

Social Media Milestone: Twitter is Launched

July 15, 2006: The online social media service Twitter was launched. By 2014, its online presence was ubiquitous. Twitter, in short, allowed members (at no charge) to send out short messages (140 characters or fewer) and/or images. The "tweeted" message, in turn, would be received by those following the sender. along with those who might view it in a special "hashtag" conversation area.

Above: The Twitter bird logo; A composite of the two-most tweeted images, at least as of March 2014: A "Selfie" of 2014 Oscars Host Ellen DeGeneres and various celebrities in March 2014, and President and Mrs. Obama in a 2012 photo that was tweeted shortly after Obama won re-election in November 2012

A Satire of Red State America: Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby

August 4, 2006: Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby debuted in American theaters.

Above: Theatrical release poster of Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby; Cal Naughton, Jr. (John C. Reilly) and Ricky Bobby (Will Ferrell) hold court at a Bobby family dinner.

Above: Cal Naughton, Jr. and Ricky Bobby celebrate victory for the "Shake n' Bake" duo; Jean Girard of France, rival to Ricky Bobby


September 1, 2006: Mike Judge's Idiocracy debuted in American theaters.

In an Army experiment gone awry, Corporal Joe Bauers, a man of lackluster average intelligence in our world, time-travels 500 years into the future. In the future, Joe Bauers soon discovers that--due to centuries of bad breeding--the world is full of idiots, and that he is smarter than everybody else.

Idiocracy was not a big success in movie theaters. But in time, Mike Judge's dystopian comedy achieved a cult following. Largely a thinly-veiled satire of American culture in the early 2000s, Idiocracy tears into the crass commercialism, mindless consumerism, xenophobia, and rampant anti-intellectualism commonly found in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century.

Above: Theatrical release poster of Idiocracy; Joe Bauers, an "average Joe" in the 21st century, finds himself to be the world's smartest man, when he time-travels 500 years into the future

Above: An Idiocracy city skyline, 500 years in the future

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President George W. Bush Declares that the United States Does Not Torture

September 6, 2006:

New York Times: Transcript from George W. Bush's Speech, September 6, 2006

"This program has been subject to multiple legal reviews by the Department of Justice and CIA lawyers. They've determined it complied with our laws. This program has received strict oversight by the CIA's inspector general. A small number of key leaders from both political parties on Capitol Hill were briefed about this program. All those involved in the questioning of the terrorists are carefully chosen, and they're screened from a pool of experienced CIA officers. Those selected to conduct the most sensitive questioning had to complete more than 250 additional hours of specialized training before they are allowed to have contact with a -- captured terrorists. I want to be absolutely clear with our people and the world. The United States does not torture. It's against our laws, and it's against our values. I have not authorized it, and I will not authorize it."

---President George W. Bush, Quoted by The New York Times, September 6, 2006

Television Antihero: Dexter

October 1, 2006: Dexter, a series that was part thriller, part mystery, part drama, and part dark comedy, debuted on Showtime.

The series is centered around Dexter Morgan, a blood-spatter analyst who works for the Miami Police Department. Seemingly a benign socially-awkward introvert, Dexter is secretly, in fact, a serial killer and a vigilante the very same time.

The bizarre premise to the Dexter series is that, while Dexter Morgan is a compulsive serial killer, he has channeled his appetites to kill only murderers, a strict mode of conduct spelled out in what Dexter calls "Harry's Code."

The underlying mystery of the Dexter Morgan's character is the question of his essential moral nature.

In short, is Dexter Morgan good or evil? Is he a little of both? Or..are we asking the wrong questions?

Above: Dexter logo; Dexter Morgan, full-time Miami Police Department Blood-Spatter Analyst...and part-time vigilante

Above: Dexter and his sister, Officer Debra Morgan; Detective Angel Batista and Dexter analyze a crime scene

The Republican Party and the Alienation of Hispanic Voters

October 26, 2006: President George W. Bush signed into law the Secure Fence Act, legislation authorizing hundreds of miles of fence construction along the U.S.-Mexico border.

In the 2004 Presidential Election, Bush (a former Texas governor) received around 40% of the Latino vote, a high percentage compared to previous Republican candidates. The Republican Party, it seemed, was poised to make enduring inroads into the growing Latino electorate.

But in 2005 and 2006 members of the conservative movement increasingly advocated harsher approaches to dealing withillegal immigration. Bush's efforts to pass more immigrant-friendly comprehensive immigration reform failed.

As such, a few days before the congressional midterm elections, Bush meekly signed the Secure Fence Act, an piece of legislation that likely alienated many Latino voters from the Republican Party.

Above: Bush signs the Secure Fence Act of 2006 into law

Bush's Remarks on the Secure Fence Act

The 2006 Midterm Elections: The Democrats Win Congress

November 7, 2006: In the 2006 Midterm Congressional Elections, the Democratic Party won majorities in both the House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate.

The triumph of the House Democrats ended 12 years of Republican rule in the House of Representatives.


Above: Nancy Pelosi, the House Minority Leader who, as a result of the 2006 House Elections, was to become the first woman to become Speaker of the House of Representatives.

In November 2006, the Democratic Party emerged victorious in enough Congressional elections to gain control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representative Nancy Pelosi (Democrat from California) was chosen to be the Speaker of the House by her Democratic peers. She was the first woman to hold this office, and she served as House Speaker for four years, beginning in January 2007.


Fiasco in Iraq: The Resignation of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld

November 8, 2006: The day after the Republican defeats in the 2006 Congressional elections, President George W. Bush announced the impending resignation of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld.

Rumsfeld had come under increased criticism as Iraq deteriorated into sectarian civil war. Rumsfeld, moreover, was not popular with many in the U.S. military hierarchy. Though he had vowed to retain Rumsfeld through the end of his second term, Bush accepted Rumsfeld's resignation, an action that went into effect in December 2006.

Above: Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld; Bush and Rumsfeld during the resignation announcement

The Death of Gerald R. Ford, 1913-2006

December 26, 2006: At the age of 93, former President Gerald R. Ford died.

Above: Gerald R. Ford, 1913-2006

Saddam Hussein Executed by Hanging

December 30, 2006:

Above: Screenshot of Saddam Hussein's execution

New York Times: December 30, 2006 Article on the Execution of Saddam Hussein

"Saddam Hussein, the dictator who led Iraq through three decades of brutality, war and bombast before American forces chased him from his capital city and captured him in a filthy pit near his hometown, was hanged just before dawn Saturday during the morning call to prayer."

---New York Times, December 30, 2006

Time's 2006 Person of the Year: You



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Nancy Pelosi Became Speaker of the House of Representatives

January 3, 2007: California Representative Nancy Pelosi became Speaker of the House, signifying an age of increasing American diversity. Pelosi served two terms as Speaker of the House for a total of 4 years (2007-2011).


Above: Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi posing with children near the Speaker's chair in the House Chamber of the U.S. Capitol Building

Apple's Steve Jobs Introduces the Smartphone

January 9, 2007: The Smartphone Has Changed the World

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Bush Addresses the Nation, and Calls for a Surge of U.S. Troops into Iraq

January 10, 2007:


Washington Post: Transcript of Bush's Address on January 10, 2007

2008 Presidential Elections

February 10, 2007: Senator Barack Obama of Illinois announced that he would be seeking the nomination of the Democratic Party for the Presidency of the United States.

Above: AP photo of Senator Barack Obama and Family in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007; Barack Obama and Hillary Rodham Clinton on the cover of Newsweek

The contest for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party was unprecedented in that neither of the top two candidates were white males. At the start of the caucus and primary season, most pundits believed that Senator Hillary Clinton (the wife of former president Bill Clinton) of New York was likely to win the nomination.

Senator Barack Obama of Illinois, however, gained an early victory in the Iowa Caucus, and in time, piled up a significant delegate lead over Senator Clinton. In the end, Obama secured enough delegates to win the nomination. Upon becoming President-Elect, Senator Obama asked Senator Clinton to be his Secretary of State. She accepted, and became U.S. Secretary of State in early 2009.

National Journal: Eight Years After Barack Obama Announced his Presidential Candidacy

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Dick Cheney's Chief of Staff, Scooter Libby, Convicted of Perjury, Making False Statements, and Obstruction of Justice

March 6, 2007:

Above: Time coverage of Scooter Libby's (Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff) criminal conviction; Scooter Libby

New York Times: March 6, 2006 article on the Scooter Libby Conviction

"I. Lewis Libby Jr., the former chief of staff to Vice President Dick Cheney, was convicted today of lying to a grand jury and to F.B.I. agents investigating the leak of the identity of a C.I.A. operative in the summer of 2003 amid a fierce public dispute over the war in Iraq."

---New York Times, March 6, 2007

The Virginia Tech Massacre: 32 People Killed by Gunfire

April 16, 2007:

Above: Time coverage of the Virginia Tech Massacre; Virginia Tech Mass Murderer Seung-Hui Cho

New York Times: The Virginia Tech Massacre Seung-Hui Cho CNN: Timeline of the Virginia Tech Massacre

Cynthia Tucker, Winner of a Pulitzer Prize

April 16, 2007: Journalist Cynthia Tucker, a native of Monroeville, Alabama and graduate of Auburn University, won a Pulitzer Prize in Commentary.

Above: Cynthia Tucker portrait; Tucker receiving the Pulitzer Prize in Commentary

NYT: 2007 Pulitzer Winners

The Death of Jerry Falwell and the Aging of the Religious Right

May 15, 2007: Jerry Falwell, a fundamentalist Baptist preacher who was a key founder of the Moral Majority, died of a heart attack. A key figure in the Religious Right, Falwell's death created a significant vacancy within the leadership of politically active Evangelical conservatives.

Above: Jerry Falwell, 1933-2007

Christopher Hitchens on the Death of Jerry Falwell The Nation on the Death of Jerry Falwell

The Finale Episode of The Sopranos

June 10, 2007:

Above: Scene from the finale episode of The Sopranos

The Premiere of Mad Men on AMC

July 19, 2007:

Above: Promotional poster for the premiere of Mad Men on AMC

The Collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota

August 1, 2007: Thirteen people died as a result of the collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The bridge spanned the Mississippi River.

Above: The collapsed I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, a structure that collapsed on August 1, 2007

Report on the August 1, 2007 Minnesota Bridge Collapse ABC News: Five Year Retrospective of the I-35W Bridge Collapse

Television: The Big Bang Theory

September 24, 2007: On CBS, the television situation comedy, The Big Bang Theory debuted. The series is centered around five friends, a theoretical physicist (Sheldon), an applied physicist (Leonard), an astrophysicist (Raj), an aerospace engineer (Howard), and a waitress/aspiring actress (Penny).

The central comedic hook of the series is the interaction between the four nerdy academics and their down-to-earth female friend. The most brilliant and socially dysfunctional of the groups is Sheldon, a self-absorbed prodigy from east Texas. Sheldon's roommate Leonard, while quite geeky, possesses a decent measure of social skills and provides Sheldon with some opportunity for social interaction and human friendship.

Raj and Howard are both as geeky as they are girl-crazy, and their respective pursuits of women usually result in comical failure.

Penny, in turn, is the only main character grounded in the regular world.In a manner similar to Elaine from Seinfeld, Penny cannot seem to extricate herself from her four eternally-adolescent male friends.

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Above: The Big Bang Theory main characters from left to right, Howard, Leonard, Penny, Sheldon (in his spot), and Raj

The series is also noteworthy in that it provides, albeit in a comical setting, the audience a measure of exposure to high-minded scientific ideas and problems.

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Bull Market: The Dow Closes Above 14,000

October 1, 2007:

Above: CNN chart showing the October 1, 2007 record-setting high for the Dow, a close at 14,087; President George W. Bush

CNN: Market Report for October 1, 2007

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Bull Market Apogee Prior to the Deluge: The Dow Closes at a Record-High of 14,164, a Record That Would Hold Until 2013

October 9, 2007:

Above: President George W. Bush

CNN: Market Report for October 9, 2007

The Boston Red Sox Win the 2007 World Series

October 28, 2007:

Above: 2007 World Series Program, Boston Red Sox vs. Colorado Rockies

2007 World Series: Boston Red Sox vs. Colorado Rockies

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Bull Market: The Dow Made Gains in 2007, and Closes for the Year at 13,264.82

December 31, 2007:


CNN: Market Report for December 31, 2007

"Stocks fizzled Monday, limping through the last trading day of 2007 but will close the year with respectable gains.
At the close, the Dow Jones industrial average (INDU), S&P 500 (SPX.X) and Nasdaq (COMPX), all ended slightly lower.

For the year, major indexes have fared well despite problems in the housing and credit markets. Year-to-date, the Dow is up 6.4% percent, the S&P 500 is up 3.5% percent, and the Nasdaq is up 9.8% percent.

Treasury prices rose. The dollar gained against the euro and slipped against the yen. Oil prices climbed and gold prices fell.
Trading was light Monday as investors looked to polish their portfolios ahead of the year's end.

'Even though the numbers aren't astounding, signs point to a solid economy,' said Dean Barber, president of Barber Financial Group."

---CNN, December 31, 2007

Time's 2007 Person of the Year: Vladimir Putin of Russia


Time: 2007 Person of the Year


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Bear Market: In the First Trading Day of 2008, the Dow Jones Industrial Average Loses Over 200 Points, Closing at 13,043

January 2, 2008:

Dow Jones Closings: 2008

Above: CNN chart showing that, on January 2, 2008, the Dow closed at 13,043

CNN: Market Report for January 2, 2008

"Stocks tanked Wednesday, the first trading day of 2008, as oil and gold prices at record highs and a report showing contraction in the manufacturing sector raised worries about the threat of recession.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 220 points, or nearly 1.7 percent. The broader S&P 500 (INX) index fell 1.4 percent and the tech-fueled Nasdaq (COMPX) composite lost 1.6 percent."

---CNN, January 2, 2008

The Iowa Caucuses (The Democrats): Barack Obama Starts Strong

January 3, 2008: Senator Barack Obama of Illinois won the Iowa Caucus, defeating Senator Hillary Clinton.


Time Magazine: Obama's Historic Iowa Win

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The 2008 New Hampshire Primaries: John McCain and Hillary Clinton Prevail

January 8, 2008:


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Senator John McCain Won the 2008 South Carolina Republican Primary

January 19, 2008:


Television Antihero: Walter White and the Debut of Breaking Bad

January 20, 2008: On AMC, Breaking Bad premiered.

Above: Title screen for aBreaking Bad; Walter White, high school chemistry teacher, cancer sufferer, and meth dealer

Ted Kennedy's Endorsement of Barack Obama

January 28, 2008: In a move that enhanced the stature of Barack Obama's candidacy, Senator Ted Kennedy endorsed Senator Obama instead of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Above: Senator Barack Obama and Senator Ted Kennedy

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Super Tuesday: No Knock-Out Punch in the Race Between Obama and Clinton

February 5, 2008:


Senator Barack Obama Delivers his "More Perfect Union" Speech

March 18, 2008:

Hillary Clinton Wins the Pennsylvania Primary

April 22, 2008

Dmitry Medvedev, President of Russia

May 7, 2008: Dmitry Medvedev became President of Russia. Vladimir Putin, in turn, became Prime Minister of Russia on May 8, 2008. Medvedev served a four year term, leaving office in May 2012.

Above: Dmitry Medvedev, President of Russia from May 2008 to May 2012

Culture War: The Subdividing of America

May 7, 2008: The Big Sort: How the Clustering of Like-Minded America is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop (with Robert Cushing) was published.

In The Big Sort, Bishop and Cushing describe a central paradox in American culture and politics. Yes, it is true that America has been becoming an increasingly diverse nation. But it is also true, they maintain, that Americans have been sorting andself-separating themselves into homogenous residential and cultural communities, all the way down to the neighborhood level. Thus, in the early 21st century, the United States of America had become, in culture and politics, diverse and pluralistic, yet simultaneously homogenous and bitterly divided.

In short, they argue that the United States had become an increasingly divided country due to the massive degree of self-separation into micro communities.

Above: Cover of The Big Sort

The Big Sort Website

Vladimir Putin Appointed Prime Minister of Russia

May 8, 2008: Vladimir Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia, serving until May 7, 2012. At the end of his term as Prime Minister, Putin again became President of Russia on May 7, 2012.

Above: Vladimir Putin, Prime Minister of Russia, 2008-2012

Senator Barack Obama Wins the Oregon Primary

May 20, 2008


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Bear Market: The Dow Falls Below 12,000, Closing at 11,842

June 20, 2008:

Dow Jones Closings in 2008

Above: The Dow Jones Industrial Average Closed at 11,842.69 on June 20, 2008

CNN: Market Report for June 20, 2008

"Stocks slumped Friday, ending a tough week on a low note as renewed worries about the credit market crisis and inflation sent the Dow to a three-month low.

Bonds rallied, sending the corresponding yields lower as investors sought the comparative safety of government debt. The dollar slipped versus other major currencies.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost around 220 points, or 1.8%, closing at its lowest point since March 10. The broader Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index lost 1.9% and closed at its lowest point in nearly three months. The tech-heavy Nasdaq composite (COMP) lost 2.3%.

For the week, the Dow fell 3.8%, the S&P 500 fell 3.1%, and the Nasdaq fell just under 2%."

---CNN, June 20, 2008

The Premiere of Season 2 of Mad Men

July 27, 2008:

Above: Poster for the premiere of Season 2 of Mad Men

Russian Invasion of Georgia

August 7-16, 2008:

Above: Time cover from the August 25, 2008 issue pertaining to Russia's invasion of Georgia

2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China

August 8, 2008: The People's Republic of China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics. The opening ceremony was held on August 8th. The 2008 Summer Olympic games lasted until August 24, 2008.

Above: Logo for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, China; Fireworks over the "Bird's Nest," the major Olympic Stadium in Beijing

Above: The Olympic Rings at the opening ceremony of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China; Drummers at the opening ceremony

Above: The exterior of the "Bird's Nest," the centerpiece olympic stadium in Beijing, China (updated photo); Scene from the opening ceremonies.

Coverage of the Opening Ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, China

Obama Chooses Senator Joe Biden of Delaware as his Running Mate

August 23, 2008: Presumptive Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama named Senator Joe Biden of Delaware as his vice presidential running mate.

Above: Senators Barack Obama and Joe Biden in Springfield, Illinois

New York Times Coverage of the Selection of Joe Biden

Coverage of Obama's Selection of Joe Biden

2008 Democratic National Convention, Day 1

August 25, 2008:

Above: Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts speaking before the Democratic National Convention on August 25, 2008. It was Kennedy's last convention. He lived to see Barack Obama elected President and inaugurated as President. Kennedy would live less than a year after his 2008 Convention speech. Edward M. Kennedy died one year later, August 25, 2009.

Excerpt from Ted Kennedy's Speech to the 2008 Democratic Convention:

"My fellow Democrats, my fellow Americans, it is so wonderful to be here. And nothing -- nothing is going to keep me away from this special gathering tonight.

I have come here tonight to stand with you to change America, to restore its future, to rise to our best ideals, and to elect Barack Obama President of the United States.

As I look ahead, I am strengthened by family and friendship. So many of you have been with me in the happiest days and the hardest days. Together we have known success and seen setbacks, victory, and defeat. But we have never lost our belief that we are all called to a better country and a newer world. And I pledge to you -- I pledge to you that I will be there next January on the floor of the United States Senate when we begin the great test.
Thank you very much. Thank you. Thank you.

For me this is a season of hope -- new hope for a justice and fair prosperity for the many, and not just for the few -- new hope.
And this is the cause of my life -- new hope that we will break the old gridlock and guarantee that every American -- north, south, east, west, young, old -- will have decent, quality health care as a fundamental right and not a privilege.

We can meet these challenges with Barack Obama. Yes, we can, and finally, yes, we will."

---Senator Ted Kennedy, Democratic National Convention, August 25, 2008

Above: Michelle Obama, wife of Senator Barack Obama, addresses the 2008 Democratic Convention in Denver, Colorado

Above: Michelle Obama, wife of Senator Barack Obama, and their two daughters, Sasha and Malia

NPR: Day 1 of the 2008 Democratic National Convention

2008 Democratic National Convention, Day 2

August 26, 2008:

Above: Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton addressed the Democratic Convention, and in doing so, gave a full and unambiguous endorsement of Senator Barack Obama for President of the United States

Above: Senator Clinton and the arena

2008 Democratic National Convention, Day 3

August 27, 2008: On the third night of the convention, Senator Joe Biden of Delaware accepted his nomination as the Democratic Party's vice presidential candidate.

Above: Senator Joe Biden of Delaware, the Democratic Party's vice presidential nominee, speaks to the 2008 Democratic National Convention

2008 Democratic National Convention, Day 4

August 28, 2008: On the last night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Senator Barack Obama gave his acceptance speech as the Democratic Party's nominee as candidate for President of the United States.

Above: Obama Supporters at Mile High Stadium in Denver, Colorado

Above: Senator Barack H. Obama of Illinois speaking before the Democratic National Convention as the Democratic presidential nominee. Obama's speech was held at Mile High Stadium, an outdoor venue, in Denver, Colorado

Above: Senator Obama's 2008 Acceptance Speech

Above: The Obama family on the fourth night of the convention; The Obama-Biden 2008 Democratic Ticket

Above: Joe Biden, Barack Obama, Sasha Obama, Malia Obama, and Dr. Jill Biden; Michelle and Barack Obama

Text of Obama's 2008 Speech at the Democratic National Convention

Coverage of Day 4 of the 2008 Democratic Convention

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Senator John McCain Named Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as his 2008 Running Mate

August 29, 2008: In Dayton, Ohio, presumptive GOP presidential nominee John McCain introduced his vice presidential running mate: Governor Sarah Palin of Alaska.

Above: John McCain and Sarah Palin, the Republican 2008 ticket

Reuters: McCain Chooses Sarah Palin

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2008 Republican National Convention, Day 1

September 1, 2008: Due to the landfall of Hurricane Gustav in Louisiana, Day One of the Republican convention was cut back significantly.

Above: First Lady Laura Bush and Cindy McCain, wife of Senator John McCain, during the abbreviated Day 1 of the Republican Convention

Coverage of Day 1 of the 2008 GOP Convention

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2008 Republican National Convention, Day 2

September 2, 2008: Due to matters related to Hurricane Gustav, President Bush opted not to attend the GOP convention. He spoke to the convention via video.

Above: President George W. Bush speaks to the 2008 Republican National Convention via video link

Coverage of Day 2 of the 2008 GOP Convention

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2008 Republican National Convention, Day 3

September 3, 2008: Sarah Palin spoke to the Republican National Convention on the third evening of the St.Paul, Minnesota convention, seemingly giving the McCain candidacy a boost. Within a few days, she emerged as a shaky candidate unfamiliar with the major issues of the day.

Above: Alaska Governor Sarah Palin addressing the Republican National Convention, September 3, 2008; Sarah Palin's family

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2008 Republican National Convention, Day 4

September 4, 2008:

Above: John McCain addressing the 2008 Republican National Convention

John McCain's 2008 Acceptance Speech, September 4, 2008 McCain's 2008 GOP Convention Acceptance Speech

Premiere of The Rachel Maddow Show on MSNBC

September 8, 2008:

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Bear Market: The Friday Before the Collapse

September 12, 2008:

Above: CNN chart showing that the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 11,421 on Friday, September 12, 2008

CNN: Market Report for September 12, 2008

"Stocks were volatile Friday as investors faced uncertainty about whether Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual are likely to find buyers and whether AIG will shed its sour mortgage-related assets.

The broad financial sector problems were countered by strength in oil services and other commodity stocks and the automakers. Oil prices seesawed to a higher close as Hurricane Ike headed toward the Texas Gulf Coast.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost a few points, while the Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index and the Nasdaq composite (COMP) both posted slim gains.

All three major stock gauges had been on both sides of unchanged throughout the session.

Stocks rallied Monday as investors breathed a sigh of relief about the government bailout of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, tumbled Tuesday on Lehman worries, gained Wednesday after Lehman announced its third-quarter loss, rallied Thursday on Lehman buyout hopes and then ended mixed Friday."

---CNN, September 12, 2008

The 2008 Collapse of the U.S. Economy: Lehman Brothers Filed for Bankruptcy and the U.S. Stock Market Began Crashing

September 15, 2008: Lehman Brothers filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, and stock markets began to crash.

Above: Lehman Brothers and the ominous day of September 15, 2008; CNN chart showing the loss of 504 points by the Dow Jones Industrial Average

Dow Jones Closings: 2008

September and October, 2008: The U.S. economy began to crash, thus triggering a worldwide recession. The Great Recession that began in 2008 was the worst since the Great Depression of the late 20s and 1930s. In the waning days of the George W. Bush Administration, the federal government took aggressive financial action to prop up the U.S. financial system, namely by pumping in billions of dollars into American banks and other large financial institutions. Similar rescue efforts by the federal government continued into the Barack Obama Administration in 2009.

Much as the Iran Hostage Crisis doomed the Democrats and Jimmy Carter in 1980, the 2008 financial collapse under Republican George W. Bush's watch crippled Republican chances for victory in 2008. In November, the Democratic ticket of Obama-Biden was swept to victory, in large part because of an economic collapse in which a Republican president took a lion's share of the voters' blame.

New York Times: September 15, 2008
"Fearing that the crisis in the financial industry could stun the broader economy, investors drove stocks down almost 5 percent Monday, sending the Dow Jones industrial average and Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index to their lowest levels in two years."

---New York Times, September 15, 2008

CBS News: September 15, 2008

"U.S. stocks tanked on Monday, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunging the most since September 2001 after Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. filed for bankruptcy and insurance giant American International Group Inc. scurried to raise capital even as its market value was cut in half by distraught investors.

'The market can take bad news, but put it on the table. There is still a lot of news ahead, bad news,' said Linda Duessel, equity strategist at Federated Investors.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 504.48 points, or 4.4%, to end at 10,917.51, with the blue-chips socked with their worst point and percentage decline since Sept. 17, 2001."

---CBS News, September 15, 2008

CNN: Market Report for September 15, 2008

"Stocks tanked Monday, amid the largest financial crisis in years after Lehman Brothers filed for the biggest bankruptcy in history, Bank of America said it would buy Merrill Lynch and AIG slumped on fears that it can't raise cash.

Treasury prices rallied as investors sought the comparative safety of government debt, sending the corresponding yields lower. Oil prices tumbled, falling well below $100 a barrel on slowing global economic growth. The dollar rallied versus the euro and gold prices spiked.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 504 points, or 4.4%."

---CNN, September 15, 2008

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CBS News Broadcasts Katie Couric's Interview of Sarah Palin

September 24-25, 2008:

Above: The Sarah Palin interviews conducted by Katie Couric of CBS News.

Salon: Palin Has a Bad Performance

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2008 Presidential Debate: University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi

September 26, 2008:


New York Times: Transcript of the Presidential Debate, September 26, 2008

China as a World Power: Shenzhou 7

September 27, 2008: Shenzhou 7, China's third manned space expedition, conducted the first spacewalk for its space program.

Above: Launch of Shenzhou 7; Spacewalk outside of the Shenzhou 7 vehicle

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On SNL, Tina Fey and Amy Poehler Take Apart Sarah Palin

September 27, 2008: On NBC's Saturday Night Live, former cast member Tina Fey made a special return to portray GOP Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin.

Fey's imitations of Sarah Palin were brutal and poignant. Fey's "Palin," in short, was a air-headed buffoon, and Fey's Palin became the stuff of instant SNL legend. While the practical political impact of Fey-as-Palin is hard to quantify, it is hardly a stretch to say that Palin's role as punchline was something from which she never fully recovered.

Less than a year after the McCain-Palin ticket lost to Obama-Biden, Sarah Palin quit her job as Governor of Alaska.


Above: In the images above, Tina Fey (in pink) portrays GOP Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin. Amy Poehler portrays CBS News' Katie Couric

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Financial Collapse of 2008: The Dow Jones Industrial Average Fell 777 Points

September 29, 2008: When the U.S. House of Representatives failed to pass proposed bailout legislation for large financial institution, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (the Dow) plunged 777 points, a loss of about 7%.

Above: A Disastrous Day on Wall Street in which the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 777 points

Above: President George W. Bush

The Dow: Sept 29, 2008

"Stocks plunged on Monday in their biggest decline ever after U.S. lawmakers unexpectedly rejected a $700 billion financial bailout, spooking investors who fear for the future of global markets and the U.S. economy.

The Dow lost 778 points, its largest point decline in history, and posted its biggest daily percentage slide since the 1987 stock market crash. The benchmark S&P 500 also had its worst day in 21 years after the House voted down the bailout plan by a count of 228 to 205."

---Reuters, September 29, 2008

CNN: The Dow Loses 777 points on September 29, 2008

"Stocks skidded Monday, with the Dow slumping nearly 778 points, in the biggest single-day point loss ever, after the House rejected the government's $700 billion bank bailout plan.

The day's loss knocked out approximately $1.2 trillion in market value, the first post-$1 trillion day ever, according to a drop in the Dow Jones Wilshire 5000, the broadest measure of the stock market.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 777.68, surpassing the 684.81 loss on Sept. 17, 2001 - the first trading day after the September 11 attacks."

---CNN, September 29, 2008

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For the Rest of George W. Bush's Presidency, the Dow Closes Below 10,587--the Dow's Closing Level at the End of Bill Clinton's Presidency

October 2, 2008:

Dow Jones Closings: 2008

Above: The Dow Jones Industrial Average Closed at 10,482 on October 2, 2008; President George W. Bush; President Bill Clinton

CNN: Market Report for October 2, 2008

"Stocks tumbled Thursday as frozen credit markets and weak economic reports amplified jitters ahead of the House vote on the $700 billion bank rescue plan.

Credit markets remained tight, with two closely watched measures of bank lending jitters at record highs. Treasury prices jumped, lowering the corresponding yields, as investors sought less risky places to put their money.

Weekly jobless claims soared to a 7-year high, alarming investors ahead of Friday's big monthly report. And factory orders slumped to a 2-year low.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) fell 348 points, recovering a bit from a drop of 391 points earlier. The Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index lost 4% and the Nasdaq composite (COMP) lost 4.5%."

---CNN, October 2, 2008

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The 2008 Vice Presidential Debate: Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

October 2, 2008:

Above: Senator Joe Biden versus Governor Sarah Palin in the Vice Presidential debate on October 2, 2008

Transcript of the 2008 Vice Presidential Debate, October 2, 2008

The Enactment of TARP, the Troubled Asset Relief Program

October 3, 2008: President George W. Bush signed legislation into law creating the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).

The TARP program authorized the U.S. Treasury Department to purchase assets and equities from financial institutions. The program was designed to thwart the collapse of the U.S. financial sector, a distinct possibility due to the subprime mortgage crisis. The TARP program originally allowed $700 billion for these purchases, but later was cut back.

Above: President George W. Bush signing the TARP legislation into law

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Bear Market and Financial Collapse: The Dow Falls Below 10,000, Closing at 9,955

October 6, 2008:

Above: CNN chart showing that the Dow closed at 9,955 on October 6, 2008; A trader at the New York Stock Exchange on October 6, 2008

CNN: DJIA Falls Below 10,000 on October 6, 2008 CNN: Poll Indicates Widespread Belief in an Impending Depression

"Stocks plunged Monday, with the Dow down as much as 800 points during the session, as the $700 billion bank bailout plan and European government attempts to prop up faltering banks failed to comfort panicky investors.

But the Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) and other major indexes cut losses in the final hour. The Dow ended down just short of 370 points.

---CNN, October 6, 2008

Huffington Post: The Dow Closes Below 10,000

"Wall Street joined in a worldwide cascade of despair Monday over the financial crisis, driving the Dow Jones industrials to their biggest loss ever during a trading day. Even a big afternoon rally failed to keep the Dow from its first close below 10,000 since 2004.

The sell-off came despite the $700 billion U.S. government bailout package, which was signed into law Friday after two weeks in which traders had appeared to count on the rescue as their only hope to avoid a market meltdown.

At its worst point, the Dow was down more than 800 points, an intraday record. The stock market rallied during the final 90 minutes of the trading day, and the Dow finished down about 370 points at 9,955.50.

The average is down almost 30 percent from its all-time high of 14,164.53, set a year ago Thursday."

----Associated Press, October 6, 2008

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Second 2008 Presidential Debate: Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee

October 7, 2008:

Above: Senator John McCain and Senator Barack Obama debate in town hall style at Belmont University on October 7, 2008

Second 2008 Presidential Debate Transcript, October 7, 2008

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Bear Market and Financial Collapse: One Year to the Day After the Dow Hit its All-Time High of 14,164, the DJIA Closed at 8579

October 9, 2008: The Dow Jones Industrial Average collapsed another 678 points, a 7% loss of the Dow's prior value.

Above: The Collapse of the DJIA

CNN: Market Report for October 9, 2008

"Markets tanked Thursday - with the Dow falling nearly 700 points during the session - as panicked investors dumped stocks across the board.

Bank lending remained tight as nervous institutions continued to hoard cash. Treasury prices fell, raising their corresponding yields. The dollar gained versus the euro and the yen. Oil, gas and gold prices fell.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 679 points, or 7.3%, closing at its lowest point since May 21, 2003. It was the Dow's third biggest one-day point-loss ever.

The Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index lost 7.6% and closed at its lowest point since April 28, 2003. The Nasdaq composite (COMP) lost 5.5% and closed at its lowest point since June 30, 2003."

---CNN, October 9, 2008

"Over the last seven sessions, the Dow has lost 2,271 points, or 20.1%. Since hitting an all-time high of 14,164.53 one year ago today, the Dow has lost 39.4%."

---CNN, October 9, 2008

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Culture War and the 2008 Presidential Election: Senator Obama Meets "Joe the Plumber" in Ohio

October 12, 2008:

Above: Senator Obama and so-called Joe the Plumber

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The Continuing Collapse of the U.S. Stock Market: The Dow Loses 733

October 15, 2008: The Dow Jones Industrial Average collapsed another 733 points.

Above: The collapsing Dow

The Dow Jones Industrial Average: October 15, 2008

"Recession talk scared Wall Street Wednesday, sending the Dow Jones industrial average to its second biggest one-day point loss ever.

A weak retail sales report and dour forecasts from the Federal Reserve, coupled with sober comments from Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke, sent stocks tumbling.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) fell 733 points, its second biggest one-day point loss ever, second only to Sept. 29 of this year, when the House of Representatives initially rejected the government's $700 billion bank bailout plan.

Wednesday's decline was equal to around 7.9%, the Dow's biggest one-day percentage loss since Oct. 26, 1987."

---CNN, October 15, 2008

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The Third 2008 Presidential Debate: Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York

October 15, 2008:

Above: Obama and McCain debate at Hofstra University in the third Presidential Debate, October 15, 2008

Transcript of the Third 2008 Presidential Debate, October 15, 2008

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Disaster for the Republican Party: The Dow Jones Industrial Average Hits its 2008 Low Prior to the Impending Presidential Election

October 27, 2008: The Dow lost 203 points, closing at 8175, the lowest close in 2008 prior to the impending Presidential Election.

Above: CNN chart showing that the Dow Jones Industrial Average Closed at 8,175 on October 27, 2008

Dow Jones Close: October 27, 2008 CNN: The Dow Loses 203 on October 27, 2008

2008 World Series: The Philadelphia Phillies Defeated the Tampa Bay Rays

October 27, 2008:

Above: 2008 World Series Program

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Bear Market and Financial Collapse: The Dow Jones Industrial Average on the Eve of the 2008 Presidential Election

November 3, 2008:

Above: On the final day trading day prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, the Dow closed at 9319

CNN: The Dow on the Day Prior to the 2008 Presidential Election

"Stocks seesawed Monday, as investors awaited the presidential election and mulled weaker oil prices, a stronger dollar and more signs that the economy is in a recession.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost a few points. The Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index lost 0.3% and the Nasdaq composite (COMP) gained 0.3%.

Lending rates continued to improve, amid the efforts of U.S. and world governments to get money flowing again. Treasury prices rose, lowering the corresponding yields. Oil prices slipped and the dollar gained versus other major currencies.

Meanwhile, slumping manufacturing and construction activity, and plunging auto sales, added to bets that a recession is underway. In the afternoon, Dallas Federal Reserve Bank President Richard Fisher forecast that there will be no economic growth through 2009.

Additionally, in the afternoon, the government said it will borrow a record $550 billion in the fourth quarter and another $368 billion in the first quarter of next year as it looks to fund the massive financial rescue plans recently put in place."

---CNN, November 3, 2008

2008 Presidential Election: Barack Obama Sails to Victory

November 4, 2008: Senator Barack H. Obama was elected President of the United States

Above: The iconic Hope portrait of Barack Obama; CNN projects Obama as the winner of the 2008 Presidential Election

Senator Barack Hussein Obama of Illinois (Democrat) won the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, defeating Republican Senator John McCain of Arizona. Obama became the 44th President on January 20, 2009, and was the first African-American President in U.S. history.

The election of Barack Obama to the presidency also turned out to be significant moment in the history of voting by racial and ethnic minorities. In 2008, Obama won an overwhelming majority of Black and Hispanic votes. Among non-Hispanic whites, however, Obama only carried 43% of the vote. Simply put, Obama won the presidency because of high turnout among minority voters who overwhelmingly voted for him. Obama's victory demonstrated the demographic re-shuffling of the American electorate, an electorate that was becoming increasingly diverse.

2008 Presidential Election

November 4, 2008: Senator Barack H. Obama won the Presidential Election of 2008.

Above: Democrat Barack Obama at left, and Republican John McCain at right


Senator Obama (Democrat) won 365 electoral votes. Senator McCain, in turn, won 173 electoral votes. Regarding the popular vote, Obama won 52.9% of the vote, the highest Democratic percentage since Lyndon Johnson won a landslide victory in 1964.

Profile of the 2008 Electorate by the Pew Research Center

The Age of Obama

November 4-5, 2008: Election Night Celebration. President-Elect Obama and family, Grant Park, Chicago, Illinois

Above: The Obama family at Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, Election Night

Forty years prior, in 1968, the Democratic Party self-destructed in Chicago as antiwar riots raged in the outside the Democratic National Convention, including Grant Park. But forty years later, the Democratic Party celebrated in triumph as Senator Barack Obama of Illinois became President-Elect Obama.

Obama's 2008 triumph was made possible, in part, by the increasingly diverse American electorate. Approximately 26% of the 2008 voters were members of one or more racial/ethnic minority group, a near doubling of the numbers from just 20 years prior.

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Bear Market and Financial Collapse: For the First Time Since March 2003, the Dow Closed Below 8,000

November 19, 2008:

Above: (CNN Chart) On November 19, 2008, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 7,997; President George W. Bush

CNN: Market Report for November 19, 2008

"Stocks fell hard on Wednesday, with the Dow closing below 8,000 for the first time since March 2003, as ongoing anxiety about the economy and uncertainty about the future of the auto industry weighed on the market.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) shed more than 400 points to close 5% lower. All 30 Dow components lost ground.

The Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index slid 6% to its lowest level since March 2003. And the Nasdaq composite (COMP) lost 6.5% to settle at its lowest point since April 2003.

Stocks languished for most of the day, with the selloff accelerating near the close of trade. Wednesday's dramatic retreat erases gains made in the previous session."

---CNN, November 19, 2008

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Bear Market and Financial Collapse: The Dow Closes at 7552

November 20, 2008:

Dow Jones Closings: 2008

, Above: (CNN Chart) On November 20, 2008, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 7,552; President George W. Bush

CNN: Market Repot for November 20, 2008

"Wall Street slumped Thursday, with the S&P 500 plunging to an 11-1/2 year low as fears of a prolonged recession sparked a massive selloff.

Treasury prices rallied as investors sought the comparative safety of government debt. The dollar was mixed versus other major currencies. Oil prices plunged

The Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index lost 6.7% and closed at its lowest point sine April 14, 1997.

The Dow Jones industrial average tumbled (INDU) 5.6% and the Nasdaq composite (COMP) slumped 5.1%. Both the Dow and Nasdaq closed at their lowest points since March 12, 2003, which was just above the low of the last bear market.

The Dow has lost 872 points, or 10.4%, over the last two sessions. It saw a bigger two-day point drop in the two sessions after the presidential election, but it hadn't seen either two-day percentage drops since October 1987, according to Dow Jones."

---CNN, November 20, 2008

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The Great Recession

December 1, 2008: The Dow Jones Industrial Average continued to collapse, declining another 679 points.

Above: The continuing collapse of the Stock Market's signature metric, the Dow Jones Industrial Average

Above: President George W. Bush

The Dow: December 1, 2008

"Stocks got hammered Monday, as investors bailed out following confirmation that the U.S. is mired in a recession and indications that it's likely to continue for some time.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 680 points, its fourth-biggest single-session decline on a point basis ever. The decline was 7.7% in percentage terms - the 12th worst percentage one-day decline ever.

Year-to-date, the Dow is down 38.6% and has lost 42.5% from its record close of 14164.53 hit on Oct. 9, 2007."

---CNN, December 1, 2008

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Bush Agrees to a Timetable to Withdraw from Iraq, and Dodges Thrown Shoes

December 14, 2008:

Above: President George W. Bush reacting to a thrown shoe as Iraqi President Nouri al-Maliki raises his hand

Above: New York Times sequential photos of the Iraqi Shoe-Throwing Incident

Transcript of the Bush and al-Maliki Agreement Announcement

New York Times: Bush's Trip to Iraq, December 14, 2008

"President Bush made a valedictory visit on Sunday to Iraq, the country that will largely define his legacy, but the trip will more likely be remembered for the unscripted moment when an Iraqi journalist hurled his shoes at Mr. Bush’s head and denounced him on live television as a 'dog' who had delivered death and sorrow here from nearly six years of war.

The drama unfolded shortly after Mr. Bush appeared at a news conference in Baghdad with Prime Minister Nuri Kamal al-Maliki to highlight the newly adopted security agreement between the United States and Iraq. The agreement includes a commitment to withdraw all American forces by the end of 2011."

---New York Times, December 14, 2008

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The Dow at the End of 2008: The DJIA Lost 4,488.43 Points in 2008, a Loss of Over One-Third of its Value

December 31, 2008: At the end of calendar year 2007, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 13,264.82. One year later, on December 31, 2008, the Dow closed at 8,776.39.

All total, the Dow Jones Industrial Average declined 4,448.43 points from the close of December 31, 2007 to the close of trading on December 31, 2008. The loss of 4,448.43 points in 2008 was a 33.8% loss of value for the signature stock market index.

2008 Dow Jones Closings

Above: CNN chart showing that the Dow ended calendar year 2008 at 8776, a finale to a year in which the signature Dow Jones Industrial Average lost 33.8% of its value; President George W. Bush

CNN: Market Report for December 31, 2008

"Stocks rallied Wednesday, as investors welcomed the end of an abysmal year on Wall Street and looked forward to a better year ahead.

All financial markets are closed Thursday for New Year's Day...

...For investors, 2008 has been the worst year since the 1930s. The Dow lost 33.8%, the S&P 500 38.5% and the Nasdaq 40.5%."

---CNN, December 31, 2008

Time's 2008 Person of the Year: Barack H. Obama



30th Anniversary of the U.S. Diplomatic Recognition of the People's Republic of China

January 1, 2009:

U.S. State Department Chronology of U.S.-China Relations

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The Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing on the Last Full Day of Trading During the George W. Bush Presidency: 8281

January 16, 2009:

Dow Jones Closings: 2009

Above: President George W. Bush; CNN chart showing that the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 8281 on January 16, 2009, the last full trading day during the George W. Bush presidency

CNN: The Dow on January 16, 2009

"Stocks rallied Friday, ending a choppy session on a high note as investors eyed the federal bailout of Bank of America, Citigroup's plan to split its businesses and geared up for next week's presidential inauguration."

---CNN, January 16, 2009

Above: Anti-Bush chart posted on Twitter in 2015

The Inauguration of Barack H. Obama

January 20, 2009:


The Presidency of Barack H. Obama

January 20, 2009: Barack Obama became President of the United States of America

Barack Obama (Democrat), 44th American President
Years in Office: 2009-Present


Above: President Barack Hussein Obama (2009-Present)

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As the the Bush Presidency Ended and the Obama Presidency Began, the Dow Fell Below 8,000

January 20, 2009:

Above: CNN chart showing the Dow Jones Industrial Average closing below 8,000 at 7,949

CNN: Market Report for January 20, 2009

"Stocks slumped to two-month lows Tuesday as investors looked beyond President Barack Obama's historic inauguration to the battered economy he inherits.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 4%, closing at the lowest point since Nov. 21. The Standard & Poor's 500 (SPX) index lost 5.3% and the Nasdaq composite (COMP) lost 5.8%."

CNN, January 20, 2009

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton

January 21, 2009: Hillary Rodham Clinton, who was First Lady of the United States (1993-2001) and U.S. Senator (2001-2009) representing New York, became the United States Secretary of State. She served as Secretary of State until February 1, 2013.

Above: Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton

The Great Recession and the 2009 Stimulus Act

February 17, 2009: President Barack Obama signed a stimulus package into law, actions designed to boost aggregate demand to fight the economic collapse and recession that had begun before he entered office. The Stimulus Act initially appropriated a combination of $787 billion in tax cuts and government spending. The stimulus spending included sectors such as infrastructure, public education, unemployment relief, healthcare, and others.

In many respects, the 2009 Stimulus Act was a classic Keynesian economics approach (tax cuts and government spending) to increasing aggregate demand in the economy. The overall results of the stimulus efforts were mixed and subjected to a wide range of interpretations. There is little doubt that the tax cuts and stimulus money did stimulate aggregate demand to some degree, thus helping to keep the economy from sliding into a deeper recession, a definite short-run problem and potential long-run problem. There is also no doubt that the stimulus spending and loss of tax revenue contributed significantly to the federal deficit and debt, a long-term problem.

Some critics on the right said the stimulus package went too far. Others on the left said the stimulus program did not go far enough.

By the end of Obama's first term, the American economy was out of the recession, and growing modestly. Unemployment had improved, but was still higher than what was considered a healthy rate.

Above: President Obama signs the Stimulus Act into law. At right is the logo for the stimulus program.

Time: The Stimulus Act, Five Years Later

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Anti-Obama Backlash: Rick Santelli's CNBC Rant and the Birth of the Tea Party

February 19, 2009: On a CNBC business program, commentator Rick Santelli denounced the government spending under recently-inaugurated President Obama. During his rant, he used the term "Tea Party." One might say that Santelli's rant gave birth to the anti-Obama Tea Party movement.

Above: On CNBC, a cable business channel, contributor Rick Santelli ranted about government spending and bailouts. During his rant he made a reference for the need of a "Chicago Tea Party."

"You know, the new administration's big on computers and technology-- How about this, President and new administration? Why don't you put up a website to have people vote on the Internet as a referendum to see if we really want to subsidize the losers' mortgages; or would we like to at least buy cars and buy houses in foreclosure and give them to people that might have a chance to actually prosper down the road, and reward people that could carry the water instead of drink the water?…We're thinking of having a Chicago Tea Party in July. All you capitalists that want to show up to Lake Michigan, I'm gonna start organizing."

---Rick Santelli, CNBC, February 19, 2009

President Barack Obama Addresses a Joint Session of Congress

February 24, 2009:

Above: President Obama speaks before a joint session of Congress. Vice President Joe Biden and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi stand behind President Obama.

Los Angeles Times: Obama's Speech to a Joint Session of Congress

"You don’t need to hear another list of statistics to know that our economy is in crisis, because you live it every day. It’s the worry you wake up with and the source of sleepless nights. It’s the job you thought you’d retire from but now have lost; the business you built your dreams upon that’s now hanging by a thread; the college acceptance letter your child had to put back in the envelope. The impact of this recession is real, and it is everywhere.

But while our economy may be weakened and our confidence shaken; though we are living through difficult and uncertain times, tonight I want every American to know this: We will rebuild, we will recover, and the United States of America will emerge stronger than before."

---President Barack Obama, February 24, 2009

Bear Market: The U.S. Stock Market Continued to Crash, the Dow Closing at 6,594, its Lowest Level Since Mid-April 1997

March 5, 2009:

Above: CNN chart showing the Dow Jones Industrial Average closing at 6,594 on March 5, 2009; President Barack Obama

CNN: Market Report for March 5, 2009

"Stocks plunged to fresh 12-year lows Thursday as investors waded through more grim news: GM said its survival is in doubt, bank shares took a beating, and Citigroup fell below a buck.

Adding to the global woes: China defied expectations by failing to boost its economic stimulus program.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) fell 281 points, or 4.1%, to close at 6,594.44, ending at the lowest point since April 15, 1997. The Dow has now fallen 14 of the last 18 sessions.

The Nasdaq composite (COMP) fell 54 points, or 4% to close at 1,299.59, ending at the lowest point since 1279.24 on March 12, 2003, at the bottom of the previous bear market.

The S&P 500 (SPX) index lost 30 points, or 4.2%, closing at 682.55, the lowest finish since Sept. 18, 1996."

---CNN, March 5, 2009

Bear Market: The Dow Hits its Nadir in During the Great Recession, Closing at 6,547

March 9, 2009:

Above: Google screen image showing the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 6,547 on March 9, 2009

CNN: Market Report for March 9, 2009

"Stocks tumbled Monday, with the Dow and S&P 500 ending at fresh 12-year lows, as Merck's $41 billion purchase of Schering-Plough failed to distract investors from worries about the economy.

The Dow Jones industrial average (INDU) lost 80 points, or 1.2%, to end at 6,547.05, its lowest point since April 15, 1997.

The S&P 500 (SPX) index lost nearly 7 points or 1%, to end at 676.53, its lowest point since Sept. 12, 1996.

The Nasdaq composite (COMP) lost 25 points or 2%, to end at 1,268.64, its lowest point since Oct. 9, 2002."

---CNN, March 9, 2009

Culture War: Anti-Abortion Activist Scott Roeder Kills Abortion Provider Dr. George Tiller

May 31, 2009: In Wichita, Kansas, radical anti-abortion activist Scott Roeder entered a church and killed Dr. George Tiller, an abortion provider noted for performing late-term abortions.

Above: Dr. George Tiller, 1941-2009; Radical Anti-Abortion Activist Scott Roeder

New York Times: Abortion Provider Dr. George Tiller Killed by Anti-Abortion Activist

The Bankruptcy, Re-Organization, and Bailout of General Motors

June 1, 2009: General Motors announced Chapter 11 bankruptcy

Above: General Motors (GM) logo

GM Announces Bankruptcy

President Obama Addresses the Arab and Muslim World

June 4, 2009:

Above: President Barack Obama speaks at Cairo University on June 4, 2009

The New York Times: Text of Obama's Cairo Speech, June 4, 2009

The Premiere of MTV's 16 and Pregnant

June 11, 2009:

Above: Title Screen of MTV's 16 and Pregnant

Brookings Institution: The Decline in the U.S. Teen Birth Rate

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Days After Disappearing, South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford Returns from Argentina and Admits to Adulterous Affair

June 24, 2009:

Above: Reuters photo of South Carolina Governor--a conservative Republican and Religious Right stalwart--tearfully conducting a media event in which he confessed that his disappearance was due to a secret journey to see his mistress in Argentina, June 24, 2009; Reuters photo of the Governor Mark Sanford media event in Columbia, South Carolina, a media spectacle in which the conservative Republican Religious Right political star admitted to an extramarital affair with a woman in Argentina, June 24, 2009

CNN: South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford Returns from Argentina and Admits to Affair, June 24, 2009

New York Times: Transcript of Governor Mark Sanford's Press Conference at Airport, June 24, 2009

Reuters: South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford (Republican) Returns to America and Admits to Adultery, June 24, 2009

"South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford tearfully admitted on Wednesday he had been unfaithful to his wife, likely ending any chance he might be a Republican contender for the U.S. presidency in 2012.

Sanford resigned as chairman of the Republican Governors' Association and was replaced by Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour, another possible 2012 candidate.

'Any aspirations for 2012, if he had any, are certainly out of the question,' said Robert Oldendick, a political scientist at the University of South Carolina.

Sanford's confession at a tumultuous news conference ended days of speculation over his whereabouts. After he disappeared last week, his staff first said he was hiking on the Appalachian Trail. It later emerged he had traveled to Argentina to be with his lover, leaving his family over Father's Day weekend."

---Reuters, June 24, 2009

Michael Jackson, 1958-2009

June 25, 2009:

Above: Time special edition devoted to Michael Jackson

CBS News: Michael Jackson Has Died

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Sarah Palin Quits as Governor of Alaska

July 3, 2009: Alaska Governor Sarah Palin announced her resignation as Governor of Alaska, an action that would be effective in the latter days of July 2009.

Above: Sarah Palin announcing her imminent resignation as Governor of Alaska

The Senator from Saturday Night Live and Minnesota...Al Franken

July 7, 2009: Democrat Al Franken became a United States Senator, representing the State of Minnesota. Franken's entry into the Senate came after a hotly-disputed election with Norm Coleman, then the incumbent Republican Senator. He took the oath of office six months after other newly-elected members of Congress had done the same.

After a recount and subsequent legislation, Al Franken was declared the winner by the State of Minnesota.

In addition to his razor-thin electoral victory, Al Franken was also unique for his path to the Senate. In particular, Franken was a comedy writer and occasional actor on NBC's Saturday Night Live.

Oddly enough, in the early 1990s, Franken portrayed real-life Senator Paul Simon (not the singer) on the Senate Judiciary Committee in an SNL skit satirizing the infamous Clarence Thomas Hearings. Proving that truth is stranger than fiction, real-life Harvard-educated Senator Al Franken went on to serve on the real Senate Judiciary Committee that confirmedSonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan to the United States Supreme Court.

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Above: Senator Al Franken

Al Franken's victory was no trivial matter for the Democratic Party. For one, Franken's Senate presence provided the Democrats with a 60th member, thus allowing the Democratic majority to vote cloture and prevent a filibuster by the opposition. Franken's presence, in short, eventually helped the Democrats pass a Healthcare Reform Bill out of the Senate.

The 60th Democrat in the Senate...Al Franken

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Above: Al Franken on the set of Saturday Night Live, and the cover of his New York Times Bestseller, Rush LImbaugh is a Big Fat Idiot

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American Culture War: Glenn Beck Declares that Obama Hates White People

July 28, 2009: On Fox and Friends, a morning show on the politically conservative Fox News Channel, rightwing radio talk show host--and Fox News TV show host--declared that President Obama had a "deep-seated hatred for white people," and was a "racist."

In 2009 and on into 2011, Glenn Beck, a college drop-out and a recovering drug addict, consistently offered his Fox News viewers large dosages of incendiary and far-fetched rhetoric against Obama.

In the world of Glenn Beck and his minions, President Obama (and American liberalism in general) were almost always described and interpreted in apocalyptic terms. Beck's comments on July 28, 2009 were just the tip of the iceberg. In many respects, Glenn Beck's explanation of the world jibed nicely with the burgeoning Tea Party Movement.

Glenn Beck's high-profile perch at Fox ended on June 30, 2011. Evidently Beck had taken things to such lengths that he had become a net liability for the Rupert Murdoch and Roger Ailes operation. Beck continued, however, on radio and other venues.

Above: Glenn Beck; Beck's "Tree of Revolution" from his September 18, 2009 Fox News Show, an episode in which he argued that a web of leftist subversive revolution had made Barack Obama possible

Media Matters coverage of Beck's July 28, 2009 comments about President Obama

An Obama Appointment to the United States Supreme Court

August 8, 2009: After being nominated by President Barack Obama, and after confirmation by the United States Senate, Sonia Sotomayor became an Associate Justice on the United States Supreme Court

Above: Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor

Nominated by President Barack Obama in 2009, Sonia Sotomayor (a Latina of Puerto Rican ancestry) became the first Hispanic to serve as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice. The nomination and confirmation of Justice Sotomayor to the U.S. Supreme Court signaled the growing cultural and political clout of American Latinos. By 2010, approximately 1 out of every 6 American residents was Hispanic (Latino).

The Premiere of Season 3 of Mad Men

August 16, 2009:

Above: Poster for the premiere of Season 3 of Mad Men

The Death of Senator Ted Kennedy

August 25, 2009: Suffering from a malignant brain tumor, Senator Edward M. Kennedy (1932-2009) died at his family home in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts.

Born in 1932, Teddy Kennedy was the youngest of the 9 children of Joseph P. Kennedy and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. Upon his death, his sister Jean Kennedy Smith remained the only living child of Joseph and Rose.

Kennedy was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1962, and in time, became known as the liberal lion of the Senate.

Above: Edward M. Kennedy, 1932-2009

Above: Senator Edward M. Kennedy speaking to the 2008 Democratic Convention; Robert F. Kennedy (1925-1968), Edward M. Kennedy, and John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) in 1963

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American Culture War: President Obama Heckled White Addressing a Joint Session of Congress

September 9, 2009:

Above: President Obama addresses Congress about healthcare legislation; Republican Representative Joe Wilson of South Carolina shouts "You lie!" at President Obama during the speech.

PBS: Obama's address to Congress, September 9, 2009

The New York Times: Joe Wilson's Breach of Protocol

Modern Family debuts on ABC

September 23, 2009: On ABC, the controversial comedy Modern Family premiered.

Above: Promotional ad for the premiere of Modern Family

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American Culture War: Anti-Obama Conservatives Cheer as Chicago Loses Bid to Host 2016 Summer Olympics

October 2, 2009: Chicago, Illinois lost its bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, as did Madrid, Spain and Tokyo, Japan. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was chosen by the International Olympic Committee to host the 2016 games.

Prior to the final selection, President Obama traveled to Copenhagen, Denmark, making a speech on behalf of Chicago. When Chicago's and Obama's efforts proved in vain, celebration erupted among noteworthy conservatives, cheering Chicago's loss as a defeat for the President.

Above: Logo for Chicago as a Candidate City to host the 2016 Summer Olympics, a candidacy that proved unsuccessful; Screen Shot of the g Drudge Report (a conservative website) mocking Obama and Chicago's unsuccessful bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics

Above: Editorial cartoon examining the conservative anti-Obama sentiment and Chicago's failed bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics

CNN: Coverage of Chicago's Unsuccessful Bid to Host the 2016 Summer Olympics

Media Matters: Conservatives Cheer an American Loss

President Barack Obama Wins the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize

October 9, 2009: In what proved to be a controversial selection, U.S. President Barack H. Obama won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize.

To some extent, it appears that Obama won the award for initiating a departure from the unilateral foreign policy style of George W. Bush (2001-2009).

Above: President Barack Obama; Nobel Peace Prize Medal

Announcement of the Winner of the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize

"Obama has as President created a new climate in international politics. Multilateral diplomacy has regained a central position, with emphasis on the role that the United Nations and other international institutions can play. Dialogue and negotiations are preferred as instruments for resolving even the most difficult international conflicts. The vision of a world free from nuclear arms has powerfully stimulated disarmament and arms control negotiations. Thanks to Obama's initiative, the USA is now playing a more constructive role in meeting the great climatic challenges the world is confronting. Democracy and human rights are to be strengthened."

---Norwegian Nobel Committee, October 9, 2009

President Barack Obama Signed Hate Crimes Legislation into Law

October 29, 2009:

New York Times: Obama Signs Hate Crimes Legislation, October 29, 2009

Dr. Regina Benjamin, United States Surgeon General

November 3, 2009: Fairhope High School graduate, Dr. Regina Benjamin became the Surgeon-General of the United States

Above: United States Surgeon General Dr. Regina Benjamin

Appointed by President Barack Obama, Dr. Regina Benjamin became Surgeon-General, an office of hight national visibility. Dr. Benjamin gained national fame in her years of providing medical care to predominantly low-income patients in Bayou La Batre, Alabama. Dr. Benjamin grew up in Daphne, Alabama and graduated from Fairhope High School in the 1970s.

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This GOP Wins Governorships in New Jersey and Virginia, Two States Won by Obama in 2008

November 3, 2009: In New Jersey, Republican Chris Christie defeated Democratic incumbent John Corzine for the governorship of New Jersey. Bob McDonnell, the Republican Attorney General of Virginia won the Virginia governorship.

The Christie and McDonnell victories signaled a growing Republican tide heading into the 2010 midterms. For some political observers, Christie and McDonnell seemed to be at the forefront of new GOP leadership. Both were quickly seen as potential presidential candidates for 2012 and/or 2016. Both chose not to run in 2012.

Above: Republican Chris Christie; Republican Bob McDonnell

Chris Christie and the Bridgegate Scandal of 2014

Bob McDonnell and Wife Indicted in 2014

Fort Hood Massacre

November 5, 2009: Army psychiatrist Major Nidal Malik Hasan went on a shooting rampage killing 13 people and wounding several more at Fort Hood, Texas. Major Hasan was motivated by religion, particularly his pro-Taliban views.

Above: Major Nidal Malik Hasan, the Fort Hood Shooter

Alabama's Mark Ingram Wins the Heisman Trophy

December 12, 2009: Alabama's Mark Ingram won the Heisman Trophy


Above: Mark Ingram holding the Heisman Trophy for 2009

Mark Ingram of Alabama Wins 2009 Heisman Trophy

The U.S. Stock Market at the End of 2009

December 31, 2009:

Above: President Barack Obama

CNN: Market Report for December 31, 2009

"Investors are welcoming the end of a surprisingly strong year on Wall Street. In the just-completed year, the S&P 500 gained 23.4%, the Dow industrials gained 18.8% and the Nasdaq added 44%.

Stocks are up even more substantially since bottoming in March at the height of the financial market crisis.

Since closing at a 12-year low on March 9, the Dow has gained 59% and the S&P 500 has gained 65%. Since closing at a 6-year low on the same date, the Nasdaq is up 79%."

---CNN, December 31, 2009

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Time's 2009 Person of the Year: Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke


Chronicle of the Years 2010-2013